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 Sapropel  

Scheme. The composition of sapropel

White Lake Sapropel - a unique natural material, which is centuries-old sediments of lake Beloe, Tatarstan, Russia. 

This is a material of biological origin, formed on the bottom of freshwater from the plant and animal products in the result of the bacterial processes under a low level of oxygen. It consists of a sludge solution, organic, ashy elements and colloidal complex. The basis of sapropel represents remained plant origin and colloidal complex - complex organic substances that give sapropel jelly-like consistency. The wealth of different compounds in sapropel is created by the protozoa diversity of animal and vegetable origin.

Organic part of the sapropel contains a natural complex of humus substances, including humic and fulvic acids, as well as amino acids which are involved in the formation of soil structure and are key elements for the formation of soil fertility. Humic and fulvic acids have different levels of chemical activity that affect the bactericidal properties of sapropel.

Sapropel improves soil structure, texture and its agrochemical composition. Under the influence of sapropel soil pH is regulated, content of nutrients and moisture absorption and retention ability is increased, soil aeration is improved, soil processes are activated, which replenished humus fund.

The sapropel has a rich variety of macro- and microelements, including: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, sulfur, silver, molybdenum, cobalt, magnesium, manganese, copper, nickel, vanadium, zinc and others. All vital macro-and microelements for plant are presented in the optimal biological balance and poorly soluble condition that exclude «overfeeding" or "underfeeding" of  plants and beneficial to the yield and quality of agricultural products. , under the influence of sapropel oils in onions are increased,  the nitrogen content in the plants is increased by 20-30%, carotene content – by 30-50% or more,  starch content in potatoes - by 2.5% and more.

Sapropel has a high absorption capacity (190-220 mg-Eq / 100g), through which it clears the soil from heavy metals, petroleum products, pesticides, herbicides and other chemical pollutants. Plants, grown in soil fertilized with sapropel, accumulate heavy metals 1.5 times less than without sapropel.

Due to the content of natural antibiotics, among which there is natural silver (argentum naturalis), sapropel leads to self-purification of soil from plant pathogens, fungi and harmful microorganisms.

In sapropel booms special microflora, which enriches its active compounds: α-, β-carotene, chlorophyll, xanthophyll, sterols, organic acids, alcohol compound. A valuable group of biologically active substances form vitamins B (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12), C, E and other.

It was established that in sapropel contains glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose and rhamnose.

The ash, contained in the portion of sapropel, is an  available form for animals absorption of macronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, ...) and micronutrients (manganese, copper, cobalt, zinc, boron, molybdenum, cadmium, nickel, fluorine, chromium, vanadium, and others).

There are 17 species of amino acids in protein composition, but glycine, cystine, arginine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, leucine, aspartic and glutamic acid, alanine, tyrosine and histidine dominate.

Sapropel is of great interest in the feeding of animals, which is determined by  their strong  physiological effect on the body as compared to the traditional mineral additives (mono-di tricalcium phosphate, limestone, chalk, etc…).

Food additives with sapropel have biogenous stimulation and contribute to a more intensive growth, reproduction, lactation, resistance and other organism processes, aimed at the improving physiological state of animals.

Thus, the unique composition of sapropel, including organic and mineral substances, makes possible to use it in such major areas as:

crop - as a universal fertilizer and soil improver;
livestock and poultry - as a feed additive;
manufacturing of various feed products - as a main component (for feed concentrates, combined fodders) and filler (for premix production);
manufacturing of sorbents for purification of water and soil from oil, heavy metals, radionuclides - as a main component.

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